Johnson & Johnson announced it has submitted data to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to support use of a booster shot of the Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine in individuals 18 years of age and older.
The submission includes recent results from the Phase 3 ENSEMBLE 2 study that found a booster of the Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine given 56 days after the primary dose provided 94 percent protection against symptomatic (moderate to severe/critical) COVID-19 in the U.S. (CI, 58%-100%) and 100 percent protection (CI, 33%-100%) against severe/critical COVID-19, at least 14 days post-booster vaccination.
Also part of the submission is Phase 1/2a data showing that when a booster of the Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine was given six months after the single shot, antibody levels increased nine-fold one week after the booster and continued to climb to 12-fold higher four weeks after the booster. The vaccine, when given as a booster or primary dose, was generally well-tolerated.
"Our clinical program has found that a booster of our COVID-19 vaccine increases levels of protection for those who have received our single-shot vaccine to 94 percent. We look forward to our discussions with the FDA and other health authorities to support their decisions regarding boosters," said Mathai Mammen, M.D., Ph.D., Global Head, Janssen Research & Development, Johnson & Johnson. "At the same time, we continue to recognize that a single-shot COVID-19 vaccine that provides strong and long-lasting protection remains a crucial component to vaccinating the global population."
Last month, the Company released data reinforcing the strong and long-lasting protection of its COVID-19 vaccine. The largest real-world evidence study for a COVID-19 vaccine reported to date in the U.S. demonstrated stable vaccine effectiveness of 79 percent (CI, 77%-80%) for COVID-19-related infections and 81 percent (CI, 79%-84%) for COVID-19-related hospitalizations. There was no evidence of reduced effectiveness over the study duration from March to July 31, 2021. Comparable vaccine effectiveness was demonstrated when the study was extended to August 31, 2021, for an overall study duration of six months, including when the Delta variant became dominant in the U.S. Sequencing data were not available for analysis.
These data were consistent with the Phase 3 ENSEMBLE trial, where strong protection against severe/critical disease and death was observed at least 28 days post-final vaccination.
Interim results from a Phase 1/2a sub-study published in the New England Journal of Medicine in July demonstrated that both humoral (antibody) and cellular (T-cell) immune responses generated by the Johnson & Johnson single-shot COVID-19 vaccine were strong and stable through eight months after immunization, the length of time evaluated in the study. These peer-reviewed data provide further and deeper insights into the durable humoral and cellular immune responses elicited by the single-shot Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine, thus offering potentially a dual mechanism of protection against COVID-19 disease, including against disease caused by the Delta variant (B.1.617.2) and other SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. The cellular immune response induced by the Company's AdVac® platform is strong and plays a role in both protection and durability.
The Company plans to submit the data to other regulators, the World Health Organization (WHO) and National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups (NITAGs) worldwide to inform decision-making on local vaccine administration strategies, as needed.
The Johnson & Johnson single-shot COVID-19 vaccine, developed by its Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson & Johnson, received an EUA in the United States on February 27, 2021 and Conditional Marketing Authorization (CMA) by the European Commission on March 11. The World Health Organization (WHO) issued Emergency Use Listing on March 12, and the Company received an interim recommendation by the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on Immunization for the WHO on March 17. Many more authorizations have been granted in countries worldwide, and regulatory submissions are ongoing.
For more information on the Company's multi-pronged approach to helping combat the pandemic, visit: www.jnj.com/covid-19.